Prehospital dyspnoea

SND-ID: 2023-94-1.

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Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Wivica Kauppi - University of Borås, Department of Caring Science orcid

Research principal

University of Borås - PreHospen, Centre for prehospital research rorId


Observational study, which was based on retrospective journal review. The samples consisted of all ambulance missions (n=7260) that were classified as ESS 04 (dyspnoea as the main symptom) by ambulance clinicians during the year 2017 in two areas in southwestern Sweden, which included 16 ambulance stations. After a manual review of ambulance records and hospital records, 908 patients were excluded (reason: age < 16 years, missing social security number, ambulance transports to hospitals outside included areas, duplicate ambulance records, insufficient documentation, incorrect ESS code and secondary transports). This meant that 6354 patients were finally included.

Data contains personal data


Sensitive personal data


Type of personal data

Information on health status, personal identity number, ambulance mission id


Method and outcome

Unit of analysis


Patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom within ambulance care.

Study design

Observational study

Cohort study: Retrospective

Description of study design

Retrospective observational study

Sampling procedure

Total universe/Complete enumeration
Journal review of ambulance and hospital records. A total of 7,260 ambulance missions, of which 6,354 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, including those assessed to have breathing difficulties as the main symptom by ambulance personnel and all primary ambulance missions between January 1 and December 31, 2017.

Criteria in detail:

1) a primary mission in which a patient (or e.g. a family member that represents the patient) calls the dispatch centre, an ambulance is dispatched and 2) the assignment of an ESS code of 04 (dyspnoea) is made by the PEN.

The exclusion criteria were as follows:
1) lack of a personal identity number, 2) transportation to hospitals outside the research area, 3) age < 16 years, 4) duplicate EMS records, 5) missing record or lack of information, 6) incorrect triage (ESS), and 7) secondary transport use.

Time period(s) investigated

2017-01-01 – 2017-12-31



Number of individuals/objects


Data format / data structure

Data collection
  • Mode of collection: Observation
  • Description of the mode of collection: Observation of medical patient journals
  • Time period(s) for data collection: 2017-01-01 – 2017-12-31
  • Data collector: University of Borås
  • Instrument: Observation guide form for data entry (Data collection guidelines: Observation guide)
  • Sample size: 7260
  • Source of the data: Registers/Records/Accounts
Geographic coverage

Geographic spread

Geographic location: Sweden

Administrative information

Responsible department/unit

PreHospen, Centre for prehospital research

Ethics Review

Gothenburg - Ref. 989-17

Topic and keywords

Sort by name | Sort by year

Kauppi, W., Herlitz, J., Magnusson, C., Palmér, L., & Axelsson, C. (2020). Characteristics and outcomes of patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom, assessed by prehospital emergency nurses - a retrospective observational study. In BMC Emergency Medicine (Vol. 20, Issue 1, 67).
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-23808

Kauppi, W., Herlitz, J., Thomas, K., Magnusson, C., Palmér, L., & Axelsson, C. (2020). Pre-hospital predictors of an adverse outcome among patients with dyspnoea as the main symptom assessed by prehospital emergency nurses - a retrospective observational study. In BMC Emergency Medicine (Vol. 20, Issue 1, 89).
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-24030

Kauppi, W. (2022). Kampen mot det okontrollerbara vid existensens gräns : Patienten med andnöd i behov av ambulanssjukvård. (Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, 127). Borås, Högskolan i Borås.
ISBN: 9789189271609
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-27589

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CC BY 4.0

Contact for questions about the data

Wivica Kauppi

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