Democracy and Social Transition in the Baltic Sea Region - Latvia 1999

SND-ID: snd0760-2. Version: 1.0. DOI:


Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Elfar Loftsson - Södertörn University, School of Social Science

Yonhyok Choe - Södertörn University, School of Social Science orcid

Research principal

Södertörns högskola - School of Social Science rorId


This dataset contains results from the Latvian part of the first survey within the project 'Democracy and Social Transition in the Baltic Sea Region' carried out at Södertörn University. To study individuals' perception of social and political changes, the research team asked questions about: political effectiveness and political participation, political trust, evaluation of the electoral process, perceptions and evaluation of environmental issues, civil rights and obligations, the household's economy and financial situation. To achieve comparability with other citizen surveys conducted at Uppsala University in Sweden and at six other European universities, the modules were similar to their questions in structure and wording. A second survey was conducted in all three Baltic countries in 2001. A third survey with slightly modified question modules was conducted simultaneously in Poland.

Data contains personal data



Method and outcome

Unit of analysis


Individuals aged 18 or older

Time Method

Sampling procedure

Probability: Multistage
Firstly, the entire nation was divided into 113 strata, of which 36 was from Riga, 41 from towns and 36 in parishes. The size of the sample in each stratum was based on the proportion of inhabitants. Secondly, samples were extracted in each stratum. The secondary sampling units - individuals - were chosen using the next-birthday rule. Not more than 8 respondents were interviewed per one sampling point.

Time period(s) investigated

1999 – 1999



Number of individuals/objects


Data format / data structure

Data collection
  • Mode of collection: Face-to-face interview
  • Time period(s) for data collection: 1999-06-09 – 1999-06-26
  • Data collector: Baltic Data House of Latvia
  • Instrument: Baltic Survey 1999 (Structured questionnaire) - The questionnaire was written in English. For conducting interviews in the three countries, the original version was translated into Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Russian. In order to check whether the translated text captured the meaning of the original texts, some questions were retranslated into English. The translations were done by each national survey institute.
  • Sample size: 1116
  • Source of the data: Population group
Geographic coverage

Geographic spread

Geographic location: Latvia

Lowest geographic unit


Highest geographic unit


Administrative information

Responsible department/unit

School of Social Science

Topic and keywords

Research area

Working conditions (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Elections (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Political behaviour and attitudes (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Social sciences (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Political science (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Social behaviour and attitudes (CESSDA Topic Classification)


Loftsson, E., & Choe, Y. (2003). Political representation and participation in transitional democracies : Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Libris | Google Books
ISBN: 9189315146
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52

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Published: 2002-01-10
Last updated: 2023-08-18