Off-peak frequency in regional public transport

SND-ID: 2021-314-1. Version: 1. DOI:


Creator/Principal investigator(s)

Joel Hansson - Lund University, Department of Technology and Society orcid

Research principal

Lund University - Technology and society rorId


The purpose of this study is to look into patronage effects of extended supply outside peak hours on regional public transport services. The patronage effects are explored through four case studies from the region of Scania (Skåne), south Sweden. The cases include rail, coach, and bus services where substantial improvements have been made outside peak hours, resulting in at least hourly all-day services. Two datasets are used: one with panel data, covering 10-14 years of annual measurements of the daily number of trips, and one with before-and-after data where the number of trips on individual departures have been recorded at two points in time.

Trip data in the form of daily passenger numbers (weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays), annual observations. Panel data comprising four different public transport services over 10-14 years. Besides the trip data, the dataset also includes the number of daily departures, ticket prices, petrol prices, and population data.

Data contains personal data



Method and outcome

Sampling procedure

The selection of cases was information-oriented, with a selection process containing three criteria. Firstly, the off-peak improvements must have been quite extensive, resulting in at least hourly all-day services. Secondly, the improvements must have been made a few years ago, to be able to study effects over several years. Thirdly, no other substantial changes must have taken place within the time span studied. This includes, for example, unaltered peak hour frequencies and travel hours.

Time period(s) investigated

2002 – 2016

2004 – 2016

2010 – 2019

2010 – 2019



Data format / data structure

Data collection
  • Mode of collection: Compilation/Synthesis
  • Description of the mode of collection: Compilation of trip statistics (manual counts and ticket validations) 1-4 weeks per year, together with timetable data, price data, and population data
  • Time period(s) for data collection: 2021-06 – 2021-10
  • Data collector: Lund University
  • Source of the data: Registers/Records/Accounts: Administrative, Registers/Records/Accounts
Geographic coverage

Geographic spread

Geographic location: Sweden, Scania Province

Administrative information

Responsible department/unit

Technology and society


  • Funding agency: Swedish Transport Administration rorId
  • Funding agency's reference number: TRV 2015/27145
Topic and keywords

Research area

Transport and travel (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Transport systems and logistics (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Transportation (INSPIRE topic categories)

Published: 2021-11-22