Collection Varieties of Democracy

SND-ID: v-dem.

Responsible research principal(s) for data included in the collection


Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) is a new approach to conceptualizing and measuring democracy. We provide a multidimensional and disaggregated dataset that reflects the complexity of the concept of democracy as a system of rule that goes beyond the simple presence of elections. The V-Dem project distinguishes between five high-level principles of democracy: electoral, liberal, participatory, deliberative, and egalitarian, and collects data to measure these principles.

Research area

Government, political systems and organisations (CESSDA Topic Classification)

Political science (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)

Political science (excluding public administration studies and globalisation studies) (Standard för svensk indelning av forskningsämnen 2011)


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Bernhard, Michael, Dong-Joon Jung, Eitan Tzelgov, Michael Coppedge, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "Making embedded knowledge transparent: How the V-Dem dataset opens new vistas in civil society research." Perspectives on Politics 15, no. 2 (2017): 342-360.
DOI: 10.1017/S1537592717000056

Blackwell, Matthew, and Adam N. Glynn. "How to make causal inferences with time-series cross-sectional data under selection on observables." American Political Science Review 112, no. 4 (2018): 1067-1082.

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Joshua Krusell, Juraj Medzihorsky, Josefine Pernes, Svend-Erik Skaaning et al. "The Methodology of “Varieties of Democracy”(V-Dem)." Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique 143, no. 1 (2019): 107-133.
DOI: 10.1177/0759106319854989

Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, Steven Fish, Allen Hicken, Matthew Kroenig et al. "Conceptualizing and measuring democracy: A new approach." Perspectives on Politics 9, no. 2 (2011): 247-267.
DOI: 10.1017/S1537592711000880

Coppedge, Michael, Staffan Lindberg, Svend-Erik Skaaning, and Jan Teorell. "Measuring high level democratic principles using the V-Dem data." International Political Science Review 37, no. 5 (2016): 580-593.
DOI: 10.1177/0192512115622046

Coppedge, Michael, et al. "The Methodology of “Varieties of Democracy”(V-Dem)." Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique 143.1 (2019): 107-133.

Coppedge, Michael, et al. "Varieties of Democracy: Measuring Two Centuries of Political Change." (2020).

Lueders, Hans, and Ellen Lust. "Multiple measurements, elusive agreement, and unstable outcomes in the study of regime change." The Journal of Politics 80, no. 2 (2018): 736-741.

Lührmann, Anna, Marcus Tannenberg, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "Regimes of the World (RoW): Opening New Avenues for the Comparative Study of Political Regimes." Politics & Governance 6, no. 1 (2018).

Lührmann, Anna, Sandra Grahn, Richard Morgan, Shreeya Pillai, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "State of the world 2018: democracy facing global challenges." Democratization (2019): 1-21.
DOI: 10.1080/13510347.2019.1613980

Lührmann, Anna, Valeriya Mechkova, Sirianne Dahlum, Laura Maxwell, Moa Olin, Constanza Sanhueza Petrarca, Rachel Sigman, Matthew C. Wilson, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "State of the world 2017: autocratization and exclusion?." Democratization 25, no. 8 (2018): 1321-1340.

Lührmann, Anna, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "A third wave of autocratization is here: what is new about it?." Democratization (2019): 1-19.

Maerz, Seraphine F. "Simulating pluralism: the language of democracy in hegemonic authoritarianism." Political Research Exchange (2019).
DOI: 10.1080/2474736X.2019.1605834

Marquardt, Kyle L., and Daniel Pemstein. "IRT models for expert-coded panel data." Political Analysis 26, no. 4 (2018): 431-456.

Pemstein, Daniel, Kyle L. Marquardt, Eitan Tzelgov, Yi-ting Wang, Joshua Krusell, and Farhad Miri. "The V-Dem measurement model: latent variable analysis for cross-national and cross-temporal expert-coded data​." V-Dem Working Paper 21 (2018).

Povitkina, Marina, and Ketevan Bolkvadze. "Fresh pipes with dirty water: How quality of government shapes the provision of public goods in democracies." European Journal of Political Research (2019).

Sigman, Rachel, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "Democracy for all: Conceptualizing and measuring egalitarian democracy." Political Science Research and Methods 7, no. 3 (2019): 595-612.
DOI: 10.1017/psrm.2018.6

Sundström, Aksel, Pamela Paxton, Yi-Ting Wang, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "Women’s political empowerment: A new global index, 1900–2012." World Development 94 (2017): 321-335.
DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.01.016

Teorell, Jan, Michael Coppedge, Staffan Lindberg, and Svend-Erik Skaaning. "Measuring polyarchy across the globe, 1900–2017." Studies in Comparative International Development 54, no. 1 (2019): 71-95.
DOI: 10.1007/s12116-018-9268-z

Teorell, Jan, and Staffan I. Lindberg. "Beyond democracy-dictatorship measures: a new framework capturing executive bases of power, 1789–2016." Perspectives on Politics 17, no. 1 (2019): 66-84.
DOI: 10.1017/S1537592718002098

Wilson, Matthew Charles, and Josef Woldense. "Contested or established? A comparison of legislative powers across regimes." Democratization 26, no. 4 (2019): 585-605.

Wilson, Matthew Charles. "A Closer Look at the Limits of Consociationalism." Comparative Political Studies (2019): 1-34.

van Ham, Carolien, and Holly Ann Garnett. "Building impartial electoral management? Institutional design, independence and electoral integrity." International Political Science Review 40, no. 3 (2019): 313-334.

van Ham, Carolien, and Staffan Lindberg. "Reconsidering African Elections." Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. 25 Jun. 2019; Accessed 3 Sep. 2019.

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First published dataset: 2020-03-09
Last updated dataset: 2023-09-21